<th id="njfjl"></th>
<span id="njfjl"><noframes id="njfjl">
<th id="njfjl"></th>
<span id="njfjl"><video id="njfjl"></video></span>
<strike id="njfjl"></strike>
<th id="njfjl"></th><th id="njfjl"></th>
<strike id="njfjl"><noframes id="njfjl"><strike id="njfjl"></strike>
<span id="njfjl"><noframes id="njfjl">
指導
網站地圖
澳洲代寫assignment 代寫英國assignment Assignment格式 如何寫assignment
返回首頁

Assignment寫作格式:Issues of Organizational Politics in the Workplace

論文價格: 免費 時間:2022-11-12 13:24:32 來源:www.europeanvox.com 作者:留學作業網

Assignment寫作格式-工作場所的組織政治問題。本文是一篇留學生Assignment格式范文,主要內容是講述組織,像其他機構一樣,將人類互動融為一體,勢必會有不同立場的人,他們的觀點和信仰也不盡相同。這種不同的意見和信念表現為政治姿態,有時會使一個組織的活動陷于停頓。然而,組織中的這些政治是無法回避的,這是組織行為和結構的復合性質的直接結果。關于組織政治對組織的有效運作是有益還是有害,可能存在爭論。組織內部(無論是層級結構還是跨部門結構,都存在職能相互依賴性)不斷出現的不同意見,為這些論點提供了依據。盡管如此,對組織的復雜性、行為和結構屬性的清晰理解和理解,將認識到政治是任何人類管理機構的內在組成部分這一現實。組織政治通常在組織結構中如此復雜地交織在一起,以至于員工的互動、傳統、活動、績效和結果都受到這些因素的巨大影響和影響。因此,有必要了解政治對組織的影響,并努力將員工的精力轉化為有意義的產出,而不會破壞組織的首要目標。下面提供留學生Assignment格式范文供參考。

Assignment寫作格式范文

Introduction 引言
Organizations, like other institutions that bring together human interactions, are bound to have persons of diverse positions in the pecking order with divergent opinions and beliefs. Such divergent opinions and beliefs are manifested in the form of political posturing, and can at times bring an organization’s activities to a standstill. Yet these politics in the organizations cannot be circumvented, as a direct consequence of the composite nature of organizational behavior and structure. Arguments may subsist as to whether organizational politics are beneficial or detrimental to the effective running of an organization. Such arguments are informed by the upshots of dissenting views within the organization, whether hierarchical or across departments, that have functional interdependencies. Nevertheless, a clear comprehension and appreciation of the complexity of an organization, regarding its behavioral and structural attributes, will be cognizant of the reality that politics is an intrinsic composition of any human-managed institution. Organizational politics are normally so complexly interwoven within the organizational structure that employee interactions, traditions, activities, performances and results are tremendously affected and shaped by them. It is necessary therefore to understand the impact of politics on organizations and try to channel the employee energy into meaningful output that does not undermine the overriding goals of the organization.
Roots of Organizational Politics 組織政治的根源
Organizational politics has varied and subjective definitions depending on the nature of the firm. Pfeiffer (1981, p. 7) describes politics as “those activities taken within organizations to acquire, develop, and use power and other resources to obtain one’s preferred outcomes in a situation in which there is uncertainty or dissensus about choices”. This definition by Pfeiffer not only reveals the tight rope that managers have walk when carrying out their managerial duties, but it also unmasks the selfish interests that are always vested in organizations between and among departments. In fact organizational politics could be identified as the selfish and scheming behavior of employees and departments to advance vested interests at other employees and departments’ expense. These selfish interests are manifested through the scramble for organizational resources, employee and inter-departmental conflicts, struggle for power and headship and strategic control effected by managers, supervisors and departments. These managers, supervisors and departments in the organization will carry execute these activities with the intentions of getting power, cultivating individual significance or stature, accessing sensitive and valuable information, concealing true intentions and crafting alliances.
組織政治根據公司的性質有不同的主觀定義。Pfeiffer將政治描述為“在選擇存在不確定性或分歧的情況下,組織內部為獲得、發展和使用權力和其他資源而采取的活動”。Pfeiffer的這一定義不僅揭示了管理者在履行管理職責時所走的緊繩,而且也揭示了部門之間和部門之間的組織始終存在的私利。事實上,組織政治可以被認定為員工和部門的自私和陰謀行為,以犧牲其他員工和部門利益來推進既得利益。這些自私的利益表現在對組織資源的爭奪、員工和部門間的沖突、權力和領導權的爭奪以及經理、主管和部門的戰略控制。組織中的這些管理者、主管和部門將執行這些活動,目的是獲得權力,培養個人的重要性或地位,獲取敏感和有價值的信息,隱藏真實意圖,建立聯盟。
Browsing through the bulk of management literature one gets the impression that organizational management is a straightforward consensual performance unit, where concurrences on institutional goals readily abide and where managers, supervisors and subordinates freely communicate and merge their individual or departmental interests with those of entire organization. Some of these literatures claim that conflicts in the workplace can be totally eliminated by communication and transparency, or by laying off sections of the workforce that exhibit dissenting opinions. Such perceptions of organizations are diametric to the research findings of activities and processes within institutions, which reveal the existence of conflicts at all levels.
瀏覽大量的管理文獻,人們會得到這樣的印象:組織管理是一個直截了當的協商一致的績效單位,在這里,對機構目標的一致意見很容易得到遵守,經理、主管和下屬可以自由地溝通,并將其個人或部門利益與整個組織的利益相融合。其中一些文獻聲稱,工作場所的沖突可以通過溝通和透明,或者通過解雇一些持不同意見的員工來徹底消除。這種對組織的看法與機構內活動和進程的研究結果背道而馳,這些研究結果揭示了各級存在的沖突。       
Indeed, Henry Mintzberg (1989) posits that organizational politics is not an upshot of structure but power, and therefore communication and transparency cannot deracinate politics. Mintzberg goes ahead to assert that organizations only function on the foundation of influential systems like politics, authority, expertise and ideology. He adds “authority, ideology, or expertise-have some basis of legitimacy. But sometimes those means are used to pursue ends that are illegitimate” (Mintzberg 1989, p. 249). It is clear therefore that the organization management is not a rational process.
事實上,亨利·明茨伯格認為,組織政治不是結構的結果,而是權力的結果,因此溝通和透明度不能使政治混亂。明茨伯格繼續斷言,組織只有在政治、權威、專業知識和意識形態等有影響力的體系的基礎上才能發揮作用。他補充道:“權威、意識形態或專業知識有一定的合法性基礎。但有時這些手段被用來追求不合法的目的”。因此,組織管理顯然不是一個合理的過程。
It is easy to understand the root of an organization’s politics once we understand the diverse values existent in the system. Different values by different departmental managers in an organization can foster divergent notions as to which part the organization should follow to realize development. This is always the primary cause of organizational conflict; divergent values. It is factual that departmental managers sometimes make arbitrary choices in the workplace and they always cover up their choices by politics. Politics will be used by some managers to ‘rationalize’ some of their choices when a review into their decisions holds that their choices lacked empirical backing. In short, when a manager’s decision appears to lack empirical and supportive evidence, the manager will attempt frame the problem in a different way and rally colleague who are sympathetic to him or her. Framing a problem differently is always advised by the values of the people who the manager will be hoping to get backing from.
一旦我們了解了系統中存在的各種價值觀,就很容易理解組織政治的根源。一個組織中不同部門經理的不同價值觀可能會在組織應該遵循哪一部分來實現發展方面產生分歧。這始終是組織沖突的主要原因;發散值。事實上,部門經理有時會在工作場所做出武斷的選擇,他們總是用政治來掩蓋自己的選擇。當對他們的決策進行審查認為他們的選擇缺乏經驗支持時,一些經理會利用政治來“合理化”他們的一些選擇。簡言之,當經理的決定似乎缺乏經驗和支持性證據時,經理會嘗試用不同的方式來界定問題,并召集同情他的同事。經理希望得到支持的人的價值觀總是建議以不同的方式構建問題。
Other than values, special interests subsist in every organization from the top to the bottom. The diversity in special interests is exhibited in aspects like funding for projects, allocation of resources to departmental units and career outlooks. Employees, especially managerial ones, are always ambitious in their career outlooks and this creates rivalry within the hierarchical ladder. But the rivalry over career interests is not as clearly manifested as the scramble for funding and resources (Bacharach &Lawler 1980). The division of labor in the organization means a firm is partitioned into functional units also called departments. These demarcated departments are a sure source of political alignments as they line up employees against functional goals, which may not necessary go parallel with each other.
除了價值觀,從上到下,每個組織都存在著特殊的利益。特殊興趣的多樣性表現在項目資金、部門單位資源分配和職業前景等方面。員工,尤其是管理層員工,在職業前景上總是雄心勃勃,這在等級階梯中造成了競爭。但對職業利益的競爭并不像對資金和資源的爭奪那樣明顯。組織中的分工意味著公司被劃分為多個職能單位,也稱為部門。這些劃分的部門是政治結盟的可靠來源,因為它們將員工與職能目標相聯系,而職能目標可能不必相互平行。
To illustrate the causal political influence of departments on organizational set up, let us consider a scenario where the marketing department seeks to boost sales by improving delivery time and diversifying company products, while the production department endeavors to reduce the variety of products and having the least possible inventory. Such a scenario can only result in the alignment of employees in the two departments to the interests of their departments. Pfeiffer observes that “the subunit differences that emerge from the division of labor are reinforced by differences in the training, backgrounds, and prior socialization of individuals recruited into different subunits” (Pfeiffer 1981, p 73). Intrinsically, employees will subliminally have their allegiance to their departments and will side with it in case conflicts arise in the overall set up.
為了說明各部門對組織設置的因果政治影響,讓我們考慮一個場景,其中營銷部門試圖通過改善交付時間和使公司產品多樣化來提高銷售額,而生產部門則努力減少產品種類并盡可能減少庫存。這種情況只能導致兩個部門的員工與其部門的利益保持一致。Pfeiffer觀察到,“勞動分工產生的亞單位差異因被招募到不同亞單位的個人的培訓、背景和先前社會化的差異而加強”。從本質上講,員工會在潛意識中忠于自己的部門,并在整體設置中出現沖突時會站在一邊。
The differences that exist between line and staff can also cause conflicts. R.D Aragwal notes that the relationship between line and staff are “often characterized more by conflict than cooperation. Staff specialists complain that line managers are resistant to their ideas and line managers complain that staff managers are sky-gazing specialists with no comprehension of practical solutions” (Agarwal 1983, p. 151). These posturings in the workplace are prevalent because of a number of reasons. Agarwal lists these reasons as: the evident ambition and idiosyncratic behaviors of the staff managers; the apprehension of the staff in justifying its organizational survival and get the appreciation for its efforts; the dependency of senior staff employees on line staff for their incumbent positions; indistinct designation of staff roles; and ignorance by higher management.
直線智能和員工之間存在的差異也可能導致沖突。R、 D Aragwal指出,直線智能和員工之間的關系“往往以沖突而非合作為特征。員工專家抱怨直線經理對他們的想法持抵觸態度,直線經理抱怨直線經理是望天而不懂實際解決方案的專家”。由于許多原因,這些姿勢在工作場所很普遍。阿加瓦爾列舉了這些原因:員工管理者明顯的野心和特殊行為;工作人員在為其組織生存辯解時的擔憂,并對其努力表示贊賞;高級職員對現有職位的一線職員的依賴性;工作人員角色指定不明確;以及上級管理層的無知。
Another source of conflict could be the reality that top managers seek to place themselves in positions that seem very approving in the eyes of the chief executive officers, directors or heads of departments. It is clear, like mentioned previously, that managers are very ambitious and seek promotions. But it is also crystal clear that as the hierarchical organization ladder goes up, the number of plum positions gets fewer and fewer. This fuels competition and rivalry among employees seeking a similar position. Because of the simple fact that promotions require credibility of a candidate, prospective promotion employees will attempt to outdo each other and triumph in small ‘competitive conflicts’. It is the attempts to prevail in smaller conflicts that reveal hidden agendas, which later set the stage for larger political battles. The small conflicts always result in underlying alliances and unspoken networks that are the basis of attaining power.
另一個沖突的根源可能是,高層管理人員試圖將自己置于在首席執行官、董事或部門負責人看來非常認可的職位上。很明顯,如前所述,經理們雄心勃勃,尋求晉升。但也很明顯,隨著等級組織階梯的上升,梅花職位的數量越來越少。這加劇了尋求類似職位的員工之間的競爭和競爭。由于晉升需要候選人的可信度這一簡單事實,潛在的晉升員工會試圖在小型“競爭沖突”中超越對方并取得勝利。正是試圖在較小的沖突中獲勝,才暴露出隱藏的議程,這后來為更大的政治斗爭奠定了基礎。小沖突總是導致潛在的聯盟和隱性網絡,而這些網絡是獲得權力的基礎。
Positively Exploiting Organizational Politics 積極利用組織政治
The comprehension of an organization’s political set up is extremely important for management to steer the firm towards its objectives. Internally trained managers, supervisors and departmental heads will have a plus of acquaintance with general political circumstances existing in the company (various alliances and networks of influence, which can unlock an impasse or create one). Poached managers-those brought trained by other firms-ought to apply significant efforts to study and appreciate the prevailing organizational politics, by careful observation and conscientious interaction with various factions of employees. Buchannan and Badham (2008) hold that some of the pointers accessible for managers, supervisors and department heads for assessing the political environment are: overall employee satisfaction in organizational role, positive reaction to inventive ideas, decision-making efficiency and swift and speedy discharging of decisions. Insight is fundamental for management to take advantage of open channels and repress retrogressive organizational politics, and equally boost their personal credibility. 
理解一個組織的政治架構對于管理層引導公司實現其目標至關重要。經過內部培訓的經理、主管和部門負責人將更熟悉公司現有的一般政治環境(各種聯盟和影響力網絡,可以打破僵局或創造僵局)。那些被其他公司培訓過的被解雇的管理人員應該通過仔細觀察和認真與不同派別的員工互動,努力學習和欣賞當前的組織政治。Buchannan和Badham認為,管理人員、主管和部門負責人評估政治環境的一些指標是:員工對組織角色的總體滿意度、對創造性想法的積極反應、決策效率以及決策的快速執行。洞察力對于管理層利用公開渠道、壓制倒退的組織政治,同時提高個人信譽至關重要。
Buchannan and Badham also hold that outstanding managers make use of political influence accessible to them in various situations so as to uphold the overriding interests of the organization. The moment a manager comprehensively appreciates the unique settings that cause the employees in an organization to shift loyalties towards particular special interests; the leaders can use the information about the nature of these politics to the benefit of the organization. A manager with an understanding of the politics of the organization surely has leverage that can enable him use the politics and graduate to higher headship position, with excellent orientation of institutional politics. With proper political orientation; a manager can proficiently time an opening to bring to light his or her contribution to the organization; guarantee that higher management will back delicate initiative or choices; utilize apposite personnel to communicate their message across; and respect the pecking order regardless of the hurdles it produce. Political insight is always tested when handling aspects like changes in the management or management crises. It is imperative a leader identifies the factions that are going to back him against those that will try to undermine his or her credibility.
Buchannan和Badham還認為,杰出的管理者在各種情況下都可以利用政治影響力,以維護組織的最高利益。當一個管理者全面認識到一個組織中的員工將忠誠轉向特定特殊利益的獨特環境時;領導者可以利用有關這些政治性質的信息為組織造福。一個了解組織政治的管理者肯定有能力運用政治,畢業后擔任更高的領導職位,并具有良好的制度政治導向。具有正確的政治取向;經理可以熟練地安排一個空缺時間,以展示他或她對組織的貢獻;保證高級管理層支持微妙的主動性或選擇;利用合適的人員傳達信息;尊重等級制度,不管它產生了什么障礙。在處理管理層變革或管理危機等方面時,政治洞察力總是受到考驗的。當務之急是,一位領導人必須找出支持他的派系,以對抗那些試圖破壞其信譽的派系。
Unquestionably, managers are source of organizational influence, power and obviously politics. Because people inherently have needs and wishes and leaders possess the capability to offer these needs and wishes, leaders who accomplish or deliver these wants have power. Dennis Wong writes, “The most general use of the word ‘power’ in English is as a synonym for capacity, skill, or talent. This use encompasses the capacity to engage in certain kinds of performance…” (1979, p. 1). Managers can greatly repress political environment that has a negative effect on the attitude of employees and organizational outputs by linking employee wants and organizational objectives, in such a manner that realization of shared objectives also causes routine realization of personal needs. Managers, supervisors, and heads of departments must recognize that organizational politics is a result of the traditions of trust in the institution, which is created through rationalized values and promoted by communication and transparency. Communication and transparency in processes and duties is crucial in generating a climate where cut-throat organizational politics does not completely replace progressive traditions that place importance on achievement of organizational goals.
毫無疑問,管理者是組織影響力、權力和政治的源泉。因為人們天生就有需求和愿望,而領導者有能力提供這些需求和愿望。實現或實現這些愿望的領導者擁有權力。Dennis Wong寫道,“英語中‘power’一詞最常用的用法是能力、技能或天賦的同義詞。這個用法包括從事某種表演的能力……”。管理者可以通過將員工需求和組織目標聯系起來,極大地抑制對員工態度和組織產出產生負面影響的政治環境,這樣,實現共同目標也會導致個人需求的日常實現。管理者、主管和部門負責人必須認識到,組織政治是對機構的信任傳統的結果,這種信任是通過合理化的價值觀創造的,并通過溝通和透明度促進的。流程和職責中的溝通和透明度對于營造一種嚴酷的組織政治無法完全取代重視實現組織目標的進步傳統的氛圍至關重要。
Politics in the organizational setting has rules and the sooner a manager or leader deciphers the basics, the sooner he or she will build alliances and networks that serve his or her interests. Organizational politics has pros and cons and can sometimes result in loss of job or can alternatively result in promotion, depending on who is calling the shots. Organizational politics is not confined to the higher management as every member of the firm from senior chief executive, department heads, supervisors and normal employees participates in power games at one point. Gilbert Fairholm nevertheless observes that “Older group members use it more than those newly inducted into the organization. It is beyond doubt an instrument for securing organizational rewards” (2009, p.38). The basics are simple: respect the chain of command, seek favoritism by appearing credible, improve on speed of decision making and avoid stepping on too many peoples’ shoes. To be the best; be driven by factual data, create alliances, admit mistakes, unravel motives of allies and rivals, align your interests with the organization’s goals, seek common ground in stand-offs, and always agree to disagree (Forster & Browne 1996).
組織環境中的政治是有規則的,管理者或領導者越早破譯基本原則,他或她就越早建立起符合他或她的利益的聯盟和網絡。組織政治有利弊之分,有時可能導致失業,也可能導致晉升,這取決于誰在發號施令。組織政治并不局限于高層管理層,因為公司的每一位成員,包括高級首席執行官、部門負責人、主管和普通員工,都曾一度參與權力博弈。吉爾伯特·費爾霍姆指出,“老年團隊成員比新加入該組織的成員更多地使用它。毫無疑問,它是獲得組織獎勵的工具”?;驹瓌t很簡單:尊重指揮鏈,通過表現可信來尋求偏袒,提高決策速度,避免踩到太多人的鞋子。成為最好的;受事實數據驅動,建立聯盟,承認錯誤,解開盟友和對手的動機,使你的利益與組織的目標保持一致,在對峙中尋求共同點,并始終同意不同意見。       
Conclusion 結論
Organizational politics is a contentious issue in many firms and has been the subject of studies by academic writers who have sought to understand the impact of organizational politics in the running of modern organizations. Once considered a hidden power dynamic, many organizations are now embracing the reality that human are inherently political animals and possess diverse values and notions regarding what aspects of organizational life are rational and what are not. Empirical data from renowned sociologists like Dennis Wong to management academician like Jeffery Pfeiffer all agree that suppressing organization culture is futile because human intrinsically compete for supremacy and survival. The workplace, being an area where most humans spend averagely 8 hours of their lifetimes has been transformed into a political arena. In an arena where dependencies prominently subsist, where there exist divergent targets and beliefs regarding innovation and technology use and where scarcity of resources may exist, it is hard not to find competition for resources and stature. While a host of literatures on the subject of organizational politics might spend a considerable volume of their analysis on the merits or demerits of the contentious subject, most of them conclusively appreciate the reality that it is difficult to circumvent politics. Politics is about power and influence, and so is the organization.
Assignment范文總結組織政治在許多公司中是一個有爭議的問題,也是學術作家研究的主題,他們試圖了解組織政治在現代組織運作中的影響。曾經被認為是一種隱藏的權力動力,現在許多組織正在接受這樣一個現實,即人類天生就是政治動物,在組織生活的哪些方面是理性的,哪些方面不是理性的方面擁有不同的價值觀和觀念。丹尼斯·黃等著名社會學家和杰弗里·菲弗等管理學院士的經驗數據都一致認為,壓制組織文化是徒勞的,因為人類本質上是在爭奪霸權和生存。工作場所,作為一個大多數人一生平均花費8小時的領域,已經轉變為一個政治舞臺。在一個依賴性顯著存在的領域,在創新和技術使用方面存在不同的目標和信念,并且可能存在資源稀缺的情況下,很難不發現對資源和地位的競爭。盡管許多關于組織政治主題的文獻可能會花大量時間分析有爭議主題的優缺點,但大多數文獻都明確認識到很難回避政治這一現實。政治關乎權力和影響力,組織也是如此。本站提供各國各專業留學生Assignment寫作指導服務,如有需要可咨詢本平臺。

此論文免費


如果您有論文代寫需求,可以通過下面的方式聯系我們
點擊聯系客服
推薦內容
  • 碩士課程論文格式樣本:Pop...

    assignment格式樣本:All pop art draws upon modern images of cultural icons, consumer ......

  • Assessment Cov...

    Assessment Cover Sheet-Assessment Title Assignment-Prepare a short 1500 word ess......

  • 指導留學生作業格式樣本-Te...

    Term Paper assignments指導陳列樣本-Term Paper assignments怎么寫?...

  • 英國留學生Assignmen...

    攻略1 :搜集Assignment的課堂原始資料以及關文閱讀相獻,認真閱讀老師提供的資料。不同學科的老師會給出不同的資料查閱范圍。比如,有些會規定essay寫作......

  • 英國assignment格式...

    本文是英國assignment格式寫作范文,主要內容是講述影響馬來西亞的外匯匯率的因素,并且提出相應的研究背景等相關內容。是一篇格式完整的英國assignmen......

  • assignment格式范文...

    沖突或摩擦是日常生活中常見的現象,在工作的過程中,有時,當沖突太少,工作和生活可以單調和乏味。...

扒开老师双腿猛进八喷水观看
<th id="njfjl"></th>
<span id="njfjl"><noframes id="njfjl">
<th id="njfjl"></th>
<span id="njfjl"><video id="njfjl"></video></span>
<strike id="njfjl"></strike>
<th id="njfjl"></th><th id="njfjl"></th>
<strike id="njfjl"><noframes id="njfjl"><strike id="njfjl"></strike>
<span id="njfjl"><noframes id="njfjl">