<th id="njfjl"></th>
<span id="njfjl"><noframes id="njfjl">
<th id="njfjl"></th>
<span id="njfjl"><video id="njfjl"></video></span>
<strike id="njfjl"></strike>
<th id="njfjl"></th><th id="njfjl"></th>
<strike id="njfjl"><noframes id="njfjl"><strike id="njfjl"></strike>
<span id="njfjl"><noframes id="njfjl">
指導
網站地圖
英國作業 美國作業 加拿大作業
返回首頁

留學生Business作業: Is Hofstede's Model Still Relevant Today?

論文價格: 免費 時間:2022-10-25 15:08:51 來源:www.europeanvox.com 作者:留學作業網

留學生Business作業-霍夫斯泰德的模型在今天仍然適用嗎?本文是一篇留學生商務管理課程作業范文,主要內容是講述霍夫斯泰德模型是幾十年來世界上著名的文化模型,因為格利特·霍夫斯特德是研究文化多樣性和差異的先驅。在他的維度中,有四個加一的文化指數,分別是個人主義、權力距離、避免不確定性、男性氣質和長期取向。這個模型似乎為那些對文化差異沒有任何基本了解的人提供了一些知識基礎,它也是廣泛傳播的理論,被用于各個研究領域,尤其是商業和管理。然而,霍夫斯泰德維度往往被認為是過時的和有偏見的。下面就請看這篇留學生Business作業的全部內容。

留學生Business作業范文Hofstede model is a well-known cultural model in the world for many decades as Greet Hofstede is a pioneer who has done the research regarding cultural diversification and differences. In his dimension, there are four plus one cultural index stated which are Individualistic, Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Masculinity and Long-term Orientation (Hofstede G., 1973). This model seems to give some knowledge foundation to people who do not have any basic understanding about cultural differences and it is also widely spread theory which is used in various fields of study especially business and management. However, Hofstede dimension tends to be considered as dated and bias.
This essay discussion will be based upon the question How far do you agree that Hofstede’s model is dated and biased and, as such, is of no use to the contemporary international business executive .
Given below are the following reasons to our agreement/disagreement with Hofstede’s model
本文的討論將基于這樣一個問題:你在多大程度上同意霍夫斯泰德的模型過時且有偏見,因此,對當代國際商業高管來說毫無用處。            
 以下是我們同意/不同意Hofstede模型的以下原因
HOFSTEDE DIMENSIONS ARE OUTDATED 霍夫斯泰德維度已過時
There are critical reasons to argue that Hofstede’s model is dated and may be inapplicable to the contemporary international business environment. The first reason is globalization the broadening geographical inter-linkages of products, markets, firms and production factors, with a large portion of each derived, generated, or available in more countries and regions according to Papaconstantinou, G. (1995).
Due to the statistics from UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development), number of companies invest overseas and multinational companies (MNCs) operate worldwide are continually increased for decades which may reflect in higher number of immigrants and expatriate workers. Also, each business organization has its own culture promoted and inevitably workers should adapt themselves to organizational culture for instance encouraging teamwork, involving in decision making or maintaining relationship. Most of these companies operate globally, the organizational culture practices are consequently almost the same. Furthermore, global products such as McDonald s, Starbucks, Coca-Cola and jeans also influence people s lifestyles. One such illustration is when burgers become diet in many countries around the world not just only in Western countries. We now have a concept of global consumers, which are more aware about the availability of various options in the markets. Obviously, the cultures are converged and become similar from one and another, which are a complete contrast from the past.
有重要的理由認為霍夫斯泰德的模型過時了,可能不適用于當代國際商業環境。第一個原因是全球化——產品、市場、企業和生產要素之間的地理相互聯系不斷擴大,根據Papaconstantinou,G.的說法,每一種產品的很大一部分都是在更多的國家和地區衍生、產生或可得的。            
 根據貿發會議(聯合國貿易和發展會議)的統計數據,幾十年來,在海外投資的公司和跨國公司(MNC)在世界各地運營的數量不斷增加,這可能反映出移民和外籍工人的數量增加。此外,每個商業組織都有自己的文化,員工不可避免地要適應組織文化,例如鼓勵團隊合作、參與決策或維持關系。這些公司大多在全球運營,因此組織文化實踐幾乎相同。此外,麥當勞、星巴克、可口可樂和牛仔褲等全球產品也影響著人們的生活方式。一個這樣的例子是,漢堡不僅在西方國家,而且在世界上許多國家都成為了人們的日常飲食。我們現在有了全球消費者的概念,他們更了解市場上各種選項的可用性。很明顯,兩種文化融合在一起,彼此相似,這與過去形成了完全的對比。
Another key factor which rapidly stimulates this trend is advance technology for instance internet, e-mail, and social-network. According to the world internet users statistic, there is an significant increase of internet users; 380.3 percent in 2000-2009 and 444.8 percent in 2000-2010(web ref.1). Since internet is accessible everywhere and all contents are available online such as fashion, music and movies so it is the most distinct and easiest means of cultural exchange. Thus, the internet servers may directly or indirectly absorb other different cultures from what they have seen or heard and may imitate those norms. For example, independent and individualistic images of Western people are positively present on internet, these may appreciated and motivated young Chinese to be individualist who prefer freedom lifestyle and seek for self-achievement (Guangrong R., 1998). As a result people tend to value things similarly because of globalization and advance technology.
另一個迅速推動這一趨勢的關鍵因素是先進的技術,例如互聯網、電子郵件和社交網絡。根據世界互聯網用戶統計,互聯網用戶數量顯著增加;2000-2009年為380.3%,2000-2010年為444.8%(。由于互聯網無處不在,所有內容都可以在網上獲得,如時尚、音樂和電影,因此它是最獨特和最簡單的文化交流方式。因此,互聯網服務器可能直接或間接地從他們所看到或聽到的東西中吸收其他不同的文化,并可能模仿這些規范。例如,西方人的獨立和個人主義形象在互聯網上得到了積極的體現,這些可能會受到贊賞,并激勵中國年輕人成為個人主義者,他們喜歡自由的生活方式,追求自我成就。因此,由于全球化和先進的技術,人們傾向于以同樣的方式看待事物。       
The second reason is the new generation of the sample countries; those who were born after 1973, were not taken into account of Hofstede’s research. During the past thirty years this new generation is now becoming the effective workforce of the countries and can reflect the changes occurred in the society. One important driver which should be considered is education. Referring to the Institute of International Education, U.S. Department of State s Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs report Nov. 2007, number American students study abroad increased by 8.5 percent and tend to continually increase every year. Moreover, there are many partners universities in Asia generate Asialearn program for overseas students who want to study and experience Asian cultures. Consequently, there are higher numbers of students who explore and adapt to new culture. Therefore, this stimulates the cultures exchange in the global environment and then gradually invokes cultures to merge.
In addition, the educational system also influences people behaviors. Globalization affects education by changing the roles of student and teacher and generating a shift in society from industrialization to an information-based society and this effect reflects on culture and result in a new form of cultural imperialism (Chinnammai, 2005).
第二個原因是新一代樣本國家;那些1973年以后出生的人沒有被納入霍夫斯泰德的研究。在過去的三十年中,這一新一代正在成為國家的有效勞動力,能夠反映社會發生的變化。應該考慮的一個重要驅動因素是教育。參考國際教育學院、美國國務院教育和文化事務局2007年11月的報告,美國留學生人數增長了8.5%,并有逐年增加的趨勢。此外,亞洲有許多合作大學為想學習和體驗亞洲文化的海外學生提供亞洲學習計劃。因此,有更多的學生探索并適應新文化。因此,這刺激了全球環境中的文化交流,進而逐漸引發文化融合。             
此外,教育制度也影響人們的行為。全球化通過改變學生和教師的角色以及社會從工業化向信息化社會的轉變而影響教育,這種影響反映在文化上,并導致新形式的文化帝國主義。
To give you a clear example, Child-Centered System by Dewey J., 1963; system which encourage students to think by themselves, participate in group and be more confident to discuss with teacher in class, are continually promoted in Thai educational system since 1978 (web ref.2). This can directly affect the new generation of Thai in power distance aspect. As an Asian country, Thailand is perceived as a high power distance country and seniority are very important and widely practised in society (Rowley & Warner, 2007). However, the Child-Centered System tends to lower the power distance between students and teachers which was rooted in Thai culture for centuries. Furthermore, people graduated from international school or international university tends to have different value, norms and behaviors from those who study in ordinary schools for example; less or no seniority system in international school because the curriculum and teaching methods of those international institutions are mostly based on American or British educational system.
給你一個明確的例子,杜威J.的《以兒童為中心的系統》,1963年;自1978年以來,泰國教育系統一直在推廣這種鼓勵學生獨立思考、參與小組活動和更有自信地與老師進行課堂討論的系統。這會直接影響到新一代泰國人的電力距離方面。作為一個亞洲國家,泰國被視為一個高權力距離國家,資歷非常重要,在社會中得到廣泛應用)。然而,以兒童為中心的制度傾向于縮小學生和教師之間的權力距離,這種權力距離植根于泰國文化數百年。此外,從國際學?;驀H大學畢業的人往往與在普通學校學習的人有不同的價值觀、規范和行為;因為這些國際學校的課程和教學方法大多基于美國或英國的教育體系。
The third reason to argue against the Hofstede’s dimension is changes in household structure. According to UN report about demographic and social trends affecting families in the South and Central Asia region (De Silva, I. 2003), in the recent years there is an increasing number of nuclear family due to the economic condition in Asia. This may reveal that close relationship between family s members are declining in Asian society and also the culture may be no longer transcend from generation to next generations anymore. Surprisingly, single household, loan parent, cohabitating couples, decline in fertility rate and delay marriage trend are also greater every year in many countries such as Bangladesh, Kazakhstan and the Anglicized based countries. (De Silva, I. 2003a). Besides, there is another considerable trend of women s changing role, as they tend to focus more on self achievement including higher education, higher rank position and career success (De Silva, I. 2003b). This may be implied that nowadays women tend to have more masculinity characteristic and are practicing more independent lifestyle than the past.
反對Hofstede維度的第三個原因是家庭結構的變化。根據聯合國關于影響南亞和中亞地區家庭的人口和社會趨勢的報告,近年來,由于亞洲的經濟狀況,核心家庭的數量不斷增加。這可能表明,在亞洲社會,家庭成員之間的親密關系正在下降,而且這種文化可能不再能夠代代相傳。令人驚訝的是,在孟加拉國、哈薩克斯坦和英國化國家等許多國家,單親家庭、貸款父母、同居夫婦、生育率下降和延遲結婚趨勢也在逐年增加。。此外,女性角色的變化還有另一個相當大的趨勢,因為她們更注重自我成就,包括高等教育、更高級別的職位和職業成功。這可能意味著,如今的女性往往比過去更具男子氣概,更獨立的生活方式。
The last reason is, Hofstede’s research was based in surveys between 1967 and 1973. During that period, the economic and political condition in most of the countries, which are mentioned in his research, was a lot different than nowadays. Generally:
最后一個原因是,霍夫斯泰德的研究是基于1967年至1973年間的調查。在這段時間里,他在研究中提到的大多數國家的經濟和政治狀況與現在大不相同。一般情況下:
In North America, the United States and Canada were to the dusk of the postwar prosperity, when an economic slowdown became visibly apparent in the early 70’s (Web Ref. 7).
在北美,美國和加拿大正處于戰后繁榮的黃昏,70年代初,經濟增長明顯放緩。
In South America, Brasil had a spectacular growth after a five year stagnation period, Argentina was under a fast-pace development through developmentalism tactics when Mexico had a strong but unstable economic performance with problems in fiscal management and the investments (Victor Bulmer-Thomas, 2003).
在南美洲,巴西在經歷了五年的停滯期后實現了驚人的增長,阿根廷通過發展主義策略實現了快速發展,而墨西哥的經濟表現強勁但不穩定,財政管理和投資存在問題。
Europe was under an Industrial decline. Great Britain’s growth was struggling and the pound’s devaluation (1967) was the second after 1949 (Cairncross, Alec:1992), (Nicholas Woodward, 1995). Germany, having serious problems with the industrial decline, was making efforts to guide an economic policy (Federal German Budget Legislation 1967), (Web Ref. 3). Only France was passing through a booming period (Web Ref. 4).
歐洲正處于工業衰退時期。英國的經濟增長舉步維艱,英鎊貶值(1967年)是1949年之后的第二次。德國面臨著嚴重的工業衰退問題,正在努力指導經濟政策(1967年聯邦德國預算立法)。只有法國正在經歷一個繁榮時期。 
In Asia, India was in a post-war period (with China-1962, with Pakistan-1965) and a currency devaluation in 1966 (Devika Johri & Mark Miller). Japan was in a post-war rebuilding, with a great industrial development by mid-60’s (Alfred K. Ho, 1968). In Singapore, despite of the difficulties faced by the separation from Malaysia in 1965, it’s economy moved upwards through many policies and investments (Web Ref. 5) and South Korea was in the dawn of a rapid industrialization, through an outward-looking strategy adopted in the early 60’s (Web Ref 6).
在亞洲,印度處于戰后時期(1962年與中國,1965年與巴基斯坦),1966年貨幣貶值。日本正處于戰后重建時期,到60年代中期,工業有了很大的發展。在新加坡,盡管1965年脫離馬來西亞面臨困難,但通過許多政策和投資,新加坡經濟向上發展,而韓國正處于快速工業化的曙光中,通過60年代早期采用的外向型戰略。
As can be seen, the changes in political and economic environment taking place in the above countries. It can be concluded that the business environment has completely changed from the period of the survey to the present business scenario. Moreover, Hofstede’s model will not be applicable in present business environment due to the changes until today.                 
可以看出,上述國家的政治和經濟環境發生了變化??梢缘贸鼋Y論,從調查期間到目前的業務場景,業務環境已經完全改變。此外,由于今天的變化,Hofstede的模型將不適用于當前的商業環境。
Globalization, advance technology, changing education system, new generation, smaller household structure, different roles of women and period of conducting research seem to be the crucial answers why Hofstede’s dimension is dated and inappropriate for international business application since many cultures become more similar and people independently choose to behave in the way they want.
全球化、先進的技術、不斷變化的教育體系、新一代、更小的家庭結構、不同的女性角色和研究周期似乎是霍夫斯泰德維度過時和不適合國際商業應用的關鍵答案,因為許多文化變得更加相似,人們獨立地選擇自己想要的方式行事。       
HOFSTEDE DIMENSION IS BIAS 霍夫斯泰德維數是偏差
According to McSweeney, there are some limitations of Hofstede’s methodology. He states that Hofstede is sceptical and can provide information about entire national cultures. We will now review the research method of Hofstede’s model also in this part we are going to discuss about Hofstede’s method of conducting research and his way of over assumption and mere hypothesis.
根據McSweeney的說法,Hofstede的方法有一些局限性。他表示,霍夫斯泰德持懷疑態度,可以提供有關整個民族文化的信息?,F在我們將回顧霍夫斯泰德模型的研究方法。在這一部分中,我們將討論霍夫斯特德的研究方法以及他過度假設和單純假設的方式。
Method of conducting research 開展研究的方法
Firstly, Hofstede’s findings are from a single company IBM, and his informants worked with a single industry the information technology industry. Although this survey covered all workers, the data used by Hofstede to construct national cultural comparisons were largely limited to response from marketing-plus-sales employees (McSweeney, 2002). Moreover, because all of the respondents worked for IBM, and the effect of organizational culture were single and same (McSweeney, 2002). Therefore, it can be argued that the background and values of IBM workers are a considerable small group i.e. they cannot cover holistically the different perceptions of various countries. (Mead and Andrews, 2009).
首先,霍夫斯泰德的調查結果來自一家公司IBM,他的線人與一個行業——信息技術行業合作。盡管這項調查涵蓋了所有員工,但Hofstede用于構建國家文化比較的數據在很大程度上僅限于營銷和銷售員工的反應。此外,因為所有的受訪者都為IBM工作,組織文化的影響是單一的。因此,可以說,IBM員工的背景和價值觀是一個相當小的群體,即他們無法全面涵蓋不同國家的不同看法。。
Secondly, due to the research conducted in a single industry with a single company, the type of sample involved in this research is similar. Although these employees were from different countries, the effect of organization culture is the same on them (McSweeney, 2002). What is a culture? In an organization, culture can be defined as a way of studying and working everyday (Martin, 2002). Morgan provides us with a basic understanding of organizational culture: “The set of beliefs, values, and norms, together with symbols like dramatized events and personalities that represents the unique character of an organization, and provides the context for action in it and by it.” (Morgan, 1997, p.41). In addition, Hofstede highlights that the type of IBM culture is unique and uniform within the organization (cited in Risberg, 1999). As a result, it can be argued that the effect of the organizational culture on the IBM employees is very limited and similar.
第二,由于研究是在單一行業和單一公司進行的,因此本研究涉及的樣本類型是相似的。盡管這些員工來自不同的國家,但組織文化對他們的影響是相同的。什么是文化?在一個組織中,文化可以被定義為一種每天學習和工作的方式。摩根為我們提供了對組織文化的基本理解:“信念、價值觀和規范的集合,以及戲劇化事件和人物等象征,這些象征代表了一個組織的獨特特征,并為在其中采取行動提供了背景?!?。此外,Hofstede強調指出,IBM文化的類型在組織內部是獨特和統一的。因此,可以說,組織文化對IBM員工的影響是非常有限和相似的。
The third problem of his methodology is the method of questionnaire is not effective. McSweeney (2002) states that administration of the survey and the ownership of its results were IBM s; some of the questionnaires were completed within groups and not individually (McSweeney, 2002, p.103). Also, McSweeney (2002) explained that some employees of IBM were under a perception that their managers might provide more strategies on the basis of the survey results. Consequently, according to McSweeney s arguments, there are two main questionable points in the IBM s questionnaires. The first one is each country has different style of answering questions, due to this survey covered 66 countries. For instance, the effect of traditions and culture in Asia is profound (Littlewood, 1999), Asian people tend to answer questions giving more weightage to the theory aspect as well as their answers are based on their perceptions. In contrast, the westerners are opposite, their answers tend to be based on what they think is factual rather relying on the theory. Hofstede also displays that the general amount per country was small (Hofstede, 1980a). McSweeney (2002) critiqued that his research covered 66 countries, but the final data and result were from only 40 countries. According to the data from the IBM s survey, it is undeniable that samples of this research are really not homogeneous.
他的方法的第三個問題是問卷調查的方法不有效。McSweeney表示,調查的管理和結果的所有權屬于IBM;一些問卷是在小組內完成的,而不是單獨完成的。此外,McSweeney解釋說,IBM的一些員工認為,他們的經理可能會根據調查結果提供更多策略。因此,根據McSweeney的觀點,IBM的調查問卷中有兩個主要的問題點。第一個是每個國家都有不同的回答方式,因為這項調查涵蓋了66個國家。例如,傳統和文化在亞洲的影響是深遠的,亞洲人傾向于回答更注重理論方面的問題,因為他們的答案基于他們的感知。相反,西方人則相反,他們的答案往往基于他們認為是事實的東西,而不是依賴理論?;舴蛩固┑逻€顯示,每個國家的總金額很小。McSweeney批評說,他的研究涵蓋了66個國家,但最終數據和結果僅來自40個國家。根據IBM調查的數據,不可否認的是,這項研究的樣本并不完全相同。
Furthermore, the sample size in each country was different. Only in a few European countries and in Japan, the responders were over than 1000. In most of the countries they were less than 200 in total for both surveys (Mc Sweeney, 2002:94). This inequality makes the research more accurate for only a few countries. That means that the data of the research are unequally weighted. When a statistical analysis has to take place, the data have to be collected in a similar way, for all the parties (sample range-extent-quality). The questionnaires were answered by the employees of a particular company who would like to take part and not by Hofstede’s choice of separate categories of people. That’s obvious from the large differences of the sample size in each country. That means that the sample was not heterogeneous enough, in terms of population distribution, age diversity, behaviour, attitudes and perceptions. Hence, the data were not enough to characterize a whole country through these. It would be more accurate to refer to Hofstede’s research as an IBM study of that period.
此外,每個國家的樣本量不同。只有少數歐洲國家和日本的受訪者超過1000人。在大多數國家,這兩項調查的總人數都不到200人。這種不平等使得這項研究僅對少數幾個國家更為準確。這意味著研究數據的權重不均衡。當必須進行統計分析時,必須以類似的方式收集所有各方的數據(樣本范圍范圍質量)。調查問卷是由一家特定公司的員工回答的,他們希望參與調查,而不是由霍夫斯泰德選擇的不同類別的人回答的。從每個國家的樣本規模的巨大差異來看,這是顯而易見的。這意味著,在人口分布、年齡多樣性、行為、態度和觀念方面,樣本的異質性還不夠。因此,這些數據不足以通過這些數據來描述整個國家。將Hofstede的研究稱為IBM對那個時期的研究將更為準確。
In terms of conceptualization of culture, Hofstede’s (1980a) multidimensional model may not adequately capture the complete phenomenon of culture, because a singular focus on cultural values largely ignores other aspects of culture. Furthermore, at the individual and national levels, culture may not be as stable as Hofstede believed it was. So, …as Hofstede’s approach has a number of conceptual and methodological limitations that can contaminate data and introduce a systematic error.
就文化的概念化而言,霍夫斯泰德的多維模型可能無法充分捕捉文化的完整現象,因為對文化價值的單一關注在很大程度上忽略了文化的其他方面。此外,在個人和國家層面,文化可能不像霍夫斯泰德認為的那樣穩定。因此,……霍夫斯泰德的方法有許多概念和方法上的限制,可能會污染數據并引入系統性錯誤。
Hofstede’s Dimensions are contradicting with each other  霍夫斯泰德的維度相互矛盾
The addition of the fifth dimension identified by the Hofstede might have boosted the strength of his national culture model. However an intense scrutinising of study from which Hofstede mined the further dimension Chinese value survey by the Chinese culture connection group (CCC: Bond, 1988)-reveals that on of this fifth dimension is problematic. That study recognised one of Hofstede’s fourth dimensions-Uncertainty avoidance (UA)-as irrelevant to Chinese population and consequently demoted UA from being a worldwide dimension of national culture to a non-universal dimension. None of the CVS aspects were correlated with UA. If Hofstede regards the CCC study to be valid he should not have added the fifth dimension to his previous once. He should also have downgraded UA in his model. If, instead Hofstede regards the CCC study as unsound he should not have attached the fifth dimension .However the problem was? Hofstede wants it both ways.
霍夫斯泰德確定的第五維度的加入可能增強了他的民族文化模式的力量。然而,對霍夫斯泰德從中國文化聯系組織的中國價值觀調查中挖掘出的進一步維度的研究進行了深入的審視,結果表明,這第五維度的研究存在問題。這項研究承認霍夫斯泰德的第四維度不確定性回避(UA)之一與中國人口無關,因此將UA從國家文化的世界維度降級為非普遍維度。CVS各方面均與UA無關。如果Hofstede認為CCC研究是有效的,他不應該在之前的研究中添加第五維度。他還應該在他的模型中降低UA的評級。相反,如果霍夫斯泰德認為CCC研究不合理,他不應該附加第五維度?霍夫斯泰德想要兩種方式。
The meticulous examination of the research reveals that it relies on, fundamentally flawed assumptions. Hofstede’s Model involves four vital assumptions upon which his measurements are based. Though it is reasoned that assumptions are all flawed and that therefore his national cultural explanations are invalid and misleading but these assumptions are vital in the sense that they are essential for the probability of his identification claims.        
對這項研究的仔細檢查表明,它依賴于有根本缺陷的假設?;舴蛩固┑碌哪P桶怂膫€重要的假設,這些假設是他的測量所依據的。盡管有理由認為假設都有缺陷,因此他的民族文化解釋是無效的和誤導性的,但這些假設在一定意義上是至關重要的,因為這些假設對他的身份主張的可能性至關重要。
Hofstede refer in multiple instances, to the common characteristics , the common traits (1991:19) of the inhabitants of a particular nation . Thus a unique national culture is assumed to be individually carried out by everyone in nation just like A.J.P Taylor stated that The problem with Hitler was that he was German .He assumed that The data of IBM was commendably restricted to the workplace only, while other segments of national population which includes- the waged and the unwaged, full-time students, the self-employed, part time students, the retired, home workers, and others – were not taken into consideration. So, Brenden McSweeney (University of Essex) a critique while criticising his research, keeping all the flawed assumptions in his mind, contends, that Hofstede’s project is a misguided attempt to measure the unmeasurable .
霍夫斯泰德在多個實例中指的是共同特征,一個特定國家的居民的共同特征。因此,一個獨特的民族文化被認為是由國家中的每個人單獨實施的,就像a.J.P泰勒所說的,希特勒的問題在于他是德國人,而包括有薪和無薪、全日制學生、自營職業者、兼職學生、退休人員、家庭工人和其他人在內的全國人口的其他部分則未被考慮在內。因此,埃塞克斯大學在批評他的研究的同時,將所有有缺陷的假設牢記在心,認為霍夫斯泰德的項目是一個錯誤的嘗試,試圖衡量不可測量的東西。
IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT Hofstede’s MODEL IS USEFUL TO SOME EXTENT 在國際商業環境中,霍夫斯泰德的模型在某種程度上是有用的
Hofstede’s model predicts what most people would do in routine situations, in other words it provides us with some basic understanding of how a person would behave in a particular culture. Let s say for example an American, who has never worked in a Chinese based organization and has no experience in working with Chinese people, will have some general ideas about how the Chinese work culture operates. We can say this by looking into one of the dimensions of Hofstede’such as power distance: in which he has mentioned how cultures cope with societal inequality. Cultures with narrow power distance such as USA will try to reduce differences and solve problems via consultation and support whereas their counterparts (China) will do the opposite i.e. encourage differences and follow autocratic and paternalistic type leadership style. Now let s presume the previous example of the American going to work for a Chinese based company, if he/she has looked upon Hofstede model then he/she will have a certain outlook of how things run around in China. We do not say that the American should be completely guided by the model but it does help. In China, differences in power is indicated when people come for a meeting and the junior personnel may arrive much before time so has to show respect to his seniors. The American may find this hard to accept but when they become aware about this they are psychologically prepared to face this inequality. If the American has to establish and implement a management structure then it is very important for him to know the significant differences in various cultures. (Mead and Andrews, 2009)
霍夫斯泰德的模型預測了大多數人在日常生活中會做什么,換句話說,它為我們提供了對一個人在特定文化中的行為的一些基本理解。比方說,一個美國人,他從未在中國的組織工作過,也沒有與中國人合作的經驗,他會對中國的工作文化如何運作有一些大致的了解。我們可以通過研究霍夫斯泰德的一個維度來說明這一點,比如權力距離:他在其中提到了文化如何應對社會不平等。權力距離較窄的文化,如美國,將試圖通過協商和支持來減少分歧和解決問題,而其對應方(中國)則相反,即鼓勵分歧并遵循獨裁和家長式的領導風格?,F在讓我們假設前面的例子,美國人將為一家中國公司工作,如果他/她看過霍夫斯泰德模型,那么他/她將對中國的情況有一定的看法。我們并不是說美國人應該完全以這種模式為指導,但它確實有幫助。在中國,當人們來開會時,權力的差異就表現出來了,初級人員可能會提前到達,因此必須尊重其上級。美國人可能會覺得這很難接受,但當他們意識到這一點時,他們在心理上就準備好面對這種不平等。如果美國人必須建立并實施一個管理結構,那么了解不同文化的顯著差異對他來說是非常重要的。
CONCLUSION 結論
As stated above there are a number of reasons why we agree that Hofstede’s model is dated and biased. It cannot be used by an international business executive simply because they cannot be applied in the current international business environment for a number of factors, such as, work related values are not similar in the international business context. To inference we would like to state that Hofstede’s dimensions are outdated due to change in technology, globalization from an international business perspective, emerging trends in different cultures.
如上所述,我們同意霍夫斯泰德的模型過時且有偏見的原因有很多。國際商業高管不能使用它,因為由于一些因素,例如工作相關價值觀在國際商業環境中不相似,它們不能應用于當前的國際商業環境。因此,我們想指出,由于技術的變化、國際商業視角的全球化以及不同文化中的新興趨勢,霍夫斯泰德的維度已經過時。
Another reason to argue that Hofstede’s dimensions are biased is that the method of conducting research is based upon one industry and one company, similar types of sample involved in conducting research, various discrepancies in the questionnaire, elongated period of conducting research (changes in economic conditions), disproportionate sample size used to analyze data. Hofstede has relied more on assumptions and hypothesis thereby creating a paradigm wall around his model to protect his theory.
霍夫斯泰德的維度存在偏見的另一個原因是,研究方法基于一個行業和一家公司、參與研究的相似樣本類型、問卷中的各種差異、研究周期的延長(經濟條件的變化)、用于分析數據的樣本規模不成比例?;舴蛩固┑赂嗟匾蕾囉诩僭O和假設,從而在他的模型周圍建立了一道范式墻來保護他的理論。
In contrast Hofstede’s model can be used in some parts of the business environment such as it provides business executives with some form of basic understanding. When an international business executive enters into a foreign culture everything seems different from the home environment. Using Hofstede’s cultural dimensions as a reference point he/she can evaluate the approach to be taken, the decisions to be made, the actions to be executed in a very general sense for that cultural environment. No culture is homogenous and there will be deviations in real life business environment from Hofstede’s cultural findings, however, with the use of Hofstede’s model the business executive can have a foresight about how things may function in the foreign environment. It becomes less intimidating for him/her as he/she gets a much needed boost of confidence and security from studying the cultural model.
留學生Business作業通過比較得出結論,霍夫斯泰德的模型可以用于商業環境的某些部分,例如它為商業高管提供了某種形式的基本理解。當一位國際商務主管進入一種外國文化時,一切似乎都與國內環境不同。使用霍夫斯泰德的文化維度作為參考點,他/她可以從文化環境的一般意義上評估要采取的方法、要做出的決定和要執行的行動。課程作業還指出沒有一種文化是同質的,現實生活中的商業環境與霍夫斯泰德的文化發現會有偏差,然而,通過使用霍夫斯特德的模型,商業高管可以對事物在國外環境中的運作有一個遠見。當他/她從學習文化模式中獲得了急需的自信和安全感時,這對他/她來說就不那么可怕了。本站提供各國各專業留學生作業寫作或指導服務,如有需要可咨詢本平臺。


此論文免費


如果您有論文代寫需求,可以通過下面的方式聯系我們
點擊聯系客服
推薦內容
  • 歷史Essay要求:Hist...

    ?本文是歷史專業的Essay范例,題目是“HistoricalInvestigationofCanada’sFailureattheBattleofDieppe......

  • 社會學Essay格式:Sui...

    ?本文是社會學專業的留學生Essay范例,題目是“SuicideinNorthernCanada:ASociologicalPerspective(加拿大北部的......

  • 文化研究Essay范文:Ca...

    本文是文化研究專業的留學生Essay范例,題目是“Canadaacceptsimmigrants(加拿大接受移民)”,加拿大接受來自世界各地的移民,其中最重要的......

  • 護理學Essay參考案例:A...

    本文是護理學專業的留學生Essay范例,題目是“AnalysisofSickleCellDisease(鐮狀細胞病分析)”,隨著來自發展中國家的人把加拿大當成自......

  • 政治Essay寫作:Pros...

    ?本文是教育專業的Essay范例,題目是“ProsandConsoftheQuebecSeparationIssue(魁北克分離問題的利與弊)”,魁北克的分離在......

  • 文化研究Essay范文:It...

    本文是文化研究專業的留學生Essay范例,題目是“ItalianImmigrationtoCanada(意大利人移民加拿大)”,加拿大的東南海岸是在1947年6......

扒开老师双腿猛进八喷水观看
<th id="njfjl"></th>
<span id="njfjl"><noframes id="njfjl">
<th id="njfjl"></th>
<span id="njfjl"><video id="njfjl"></video></span>
<strike id="njfjl"></strike>
<th id="njfjl"></th><th id="njfjl"></th>
<strike id="njfjl"><noframes id="njfjl"><strike id="njfjl"></strike>
<span id="njfjl"><noframes id="njfjl">