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MBA Essay范文:Components of Supply Chain Management

論文價格: 免費 時間:2022-11-11 13:38:54 來源:www.europeanvox.com 作者:留學作業網

MBA Essay范文-供應鏈管理的組成部分。本文是一篇留學生MBA Essay寫作格式范文,主要內容是講述供應鏈可以定義為將貨物從原材料運輸到供應、生產和最終分配給客戶的商業實踐的數量。大多數制造組織都有某種類型的供應鏈。人們認為,所有有效的管理實踐都必須考慮到鏈內組件的效率,以避免質量損失和業務中的重要客戶。下面是留學生MBA Essay范文的具體內容,供參考。

MBA Essay寫作范文

A supply chain may be defined as the number of business practices that move goods from that of raw materials through supply, production and the final distribution of the goods to the customer. Most manufacturing organizations have a supply chain of some description. It is considered that all effective management practices must take into consideration the efficiencies of the component within the chain in order to avoid loss of quality and important customers within the business.
THE PROCESS 過程
Within any supply chain there are five key elements: 1) Production 2) Supply 3) Inventory 4) Location and 5) Transportation and Information. Each of these is examined in turn.
在任何供應鏈中都有五個關鍵要素:1)生產2)供應3)庫存4)位置和5)運輸和信息。依次檢查每一個。
Production – In order to facilitate strategic decision making relative to production it is important to understand both what the client wants and equally what the market demands. This leads to the development of supply chain agility and indicates how many products will need to be completed; the sequence to be completed, the individual components required and which plants are capable of producing them. Each of these decisions needs to focus on items such as inventory management, quality, capacity and the volume of goods to be produced in order to meet the customer need. In addition what techniques of quality control need to be introduced in order to meet the required standards of production?
生產——為了促進與生產相關的戰略決策,了解客戶的需求和市場的需求是非常重要的。這導致了供應鏈敏捷性的發展,并表明需要完成多少產品;要完成的順序、所需的單個組件以及哪些工廠能夠生產這些組件。這些決策中的每一項都需要關注庫存管理、質量、產能和要生產的商品數量等項目,以滿足客戶需求。此外,為了達到所需的生產標準,需要引入哪些質量控制技術?
Supply – This relates to the facility being able to produce efficient and economical goods whilst maintaining high levels of quality. This can be very hard for companies to achieve, particularly when the product incorporates external sub components made outside of the firm. Hence there is a need to QA external products as meeting a required standard of quality. This not only applies to imported finished goods but also the quality of raw materials being used. When selecting a supplier it is a careful balance of cost, quality, reliability and flexibility. A good supplier relationship helps to build a strategic business relationship.
供應——這與工廠能夠生產高效、經濟的商品,同時保持高質量有關。這對于公司來說可能很難實現,尤其是當產品包含公司外部制造的外部子組件時。因此,有必要保證外部產品符合要求的質量標準。這不僅適用于進口成品,也適用于所用原材料的質量。在選擇供應商時,需要仔細權衡成本、質量、可靠性和靈活性。良好的供應商關系有助于建立戰略業務關系。
Inventory – Other important decisions relate to stock or inventory and as such it is a very fine balance between holding too much inventory and not enough. This becomes an important aspect of supply chain management and it is important to retain optimum levels of stock at different locations without holding too much inventory which creates under-utilized capital. There is also the risk of obsolescence for those goods that exceed their storage dates. Control policies need to examine the procedure for retention of inventory and this involves close customer relationship management.
庫存–其他重要的決策與庫存或存貨有關,因此,庫存過多和不足之間的平衡非常好。這成為供應鏈管理的一個重要方面,重要的是在不同地點保持最佳庫存水平,而不持有過多庫存,從而導致資本利用不足。對于超過儲存日期的貨物,也存在過時的風險??刂普咝枰獧z查庫存保留程序,這涉及密切的客戶關系管理。
Location – Strategic decisions are focused upon such items as the location of production plants, distribution and stock facilities and the location of these facilities to the market. Once customers are established it is important that they are services by having production facilities within close proximity to them. This was an important part of the success of the Industrial Revolution in Britain the mines producing raw materials i.e. Coal, Coke etc. were close to the factories that needed to burn them for power and fuel, together with the steel plants that needed the coal for the furnaces.
位置–戰略決策的重點是生產工廠、分銷和庫存設施的位置以及這些設施在市場上的位置。一旦建立了客戶,重要的是通過在客戶附近設置生產設施來提供服務。這是英國工業革命成功的一個重要組成部分——生產原材料(如煤炭、焦炭等)的礦山靠近需要燃燒這些原材料以發電和燃料的工廠,以及需要煤炭用于熔爐的鋼鐵廠。
Transportation & Information 交通與信息
Transportation decisions are an important part of satisfying customer demand. (Rockford Consulting, 2012). Creating innovation requires good organization of information. Computers and software provide important valuable assists in the achievement of these objectives but it still remains important to conduct regular business process analysis and eliminate any redundancies or duplication of effort.
運輸決策是滿足客戶需求的重要組成部分。創造創新需要良好的信息組織。計算機和軟件為實現這些目標提供了重要的有價值的幫助,但定期進行業務流程分析并消除任何冗余或重復工作仍然很重要。
THE THREE COMPONENTS OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT 供應鏈管理的三個組成部分
There are three essential important components of Supply Chain Management: 供應鏈管理有三個基本的重要組成部分
Business Processes 業務流程
Management Components 管理組件
Network Structure 系統結構
Each of these can be examined in turn: 每一項都可以依次檢查
Business Processes – It is the business processes that define both the activities and flow of information within the organization. For example: order processing, customer services, distribution etc. It is important to gain a firm understanding of the business processes by conducting business process analysis. This enables the processes to be optimized by streamlining, elimination of redundant processes and building enhanced processes.
業務流程–是定義組織內活動和信息流的業務流程。例如:訂單處理、客戶服務、分銷等。通過進行業務流程分析,對業務流程有一個牢固的了解是很重要的。這使得流程能夠通過精簡、消除冗余流程和構建增強的流程來優化。
Network structure – This identifies those partners who collaborate in the supply chain. They are the important key business players. Relationships can be placed into categories for example: Strategic Partners, Manufacturing, Operational and Reserve list.
系統結構–這確定了在供應鏈中合作的合作伙伴。他們是重要的關鍵業務參與者。關系可以分為幾個類別,例如:戰略合作伙伴、制造、運營和儲備列表。
Management Components – The management component contains the company philosophy for doing business and the methods that it will deploy in order to carry this out. This should be a clear Executive framework that supports a reliable decision making process. It is important that the managers embrace the culture of the Company and this is clearly demonstrated to both the customers and those who work within the organization. (Jesperson, B.D. 2005)
管理組件–管理組件包含公司的經營理念,以及為實現這一目標將采用的方法。這應該是一個明確的執行框架,支持可靠的決策過程。重要的是,管理人員要接受公司的文化,這一點向客戶和組織內的工作人員都清楚地表明了。
INTERPRETING LOGISTICS IN THE SUPPLY CHAIN 解讀供應鏈中的物流
Logistics may be defined as the function that manages the movement of the materials in the supply chain. This is the movement of materials from the initial supply to that of the final delivery to the customer. The concept of logistics embraces a number of distinct activities like procurement, warehousing, inventory management, order processing, recycling and distribution etc. (Sadler, I. 2007)
物流可以定義為管理供應鏈中物料移動的功能。這是材料從最初供應到最終交付給客戶的過程。物流的概念包括許多不同的活動,如采購、倉儲、庫存管理、訂單處理、回收和配送等
Benefits of logistics Management- Managers will be better informed and make smarter decisions if they understand the business processes within their organization. This is critical in the achievement of business goals. Efficient logistics management is also an important vehicle in the development of the business marketing strategy. The roots of logistics management can be traced back to WW2 and the military application of mobilizing resources and materials. These early concepts were further evolved in the 1960’s with physical distribution management. In the 1990’s the advances in communication with Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) enabled electronic transfer of information between organizations. We now have Global Positioning (GP) technology that enables precise tracking of goods on a truly globalized basis.
物流管理的好處-如果管理者了解其組織內的業務流程,他們將獲得更好的信息并做出更明智的決策。這對于實現業務目標至關重要。高效的物流管理也是制定企業營銷戰略的重要手段。后勤管理的根源可以追溯到第二次世界大戰以及調動資源和物資的軍事應用。這些早期概念在20世紀60年代隨著物流管理進一步發展。在20世紀90年代,電子數據交換(EDI)通信的進步使組織之間的信息電子傳輸成為可能。我們現在擁有全球定位(GP)技術,能夠在真正全球化的基礎上精確跟蹤貨物。
The use of logistics software has the benefit of placing controls within the system and ensures that proper routing choices are made. This includes the selection of the correct carriers and optimal shipping routes. These time savings provide a considerable return on investment.
物流軟件的使用有利于在系統內設置控制,并確保做出正確的路線選擇。這包括選擇正確的承運人和最佳運輸路線。這些時間節省提供了可觀的投資回報。
EXPLORATION OF NEW CONCEPTS 探索新觀念
The external supply chain advances beyond the basic concepts of supply chain management. It brings into play all of the additional business links and the complex levels of interactivity. The integration of all of these steps is extremely complex. One such business that has stepped up to the challenge is that of Ford Motor Company in the USA. They have vertically integrated every aspect of the business from mining to manufacturing. The main driver of these new concepts has clearly been centred on customer satisfaction. One of the goals of integrated supply chain management is to remove barriers in order to allow the free flow of materials. One such barrier is that of shared resources in the supply chain. One new approach is removing this barrier and thereby changing the focus to that of ‘buyer focus’. Two existing approaches on the removal of barriers are that of lean thinking and agile manufacturing. Shared resources create a problem by adding to the complexity of planning and control, as such creating a barrier. Buyer focus looks towards splitting the buyer process into more manageable components in order to meet improved performance criteria. In this concept resources are singled out in order to serve one buyer. Hence one buyer serves the whole range of supply products.
外部供應鏈超越了供應鏈管理的基本概念。它發揮了所有額外的業務鏈接和復雜的交互水平。所有這些步驟的集成極其復雜。美國福特汽車公司就是這樣一家迎接挑戰的企業,他們將業務的各個方面從采礦到制造進行了垂直整合。這些新概念的主要驅動力顯然以客戶滿意度為中心。綜合供應鏈管理的目標之一是消除障礙,以允許材料自由流動。其中一個障礙是供應鏈中的共享資源。一種新的方法是消除這一障礙,從而將重點轉向“以買家為中心”。消除障礙的兩種現有方法是精益思維和敏捷制造。共享資源會增加規劃和控制的復雜性,從而造成問題,從而造成障礙。買方關注的是將買方流程拆分為更易于管理的組件,以滿足改進的性能標準。在這個概念中,資源被挑選出來,以服務于一個買家。因此,一個買家為所有供應產品提供服務。
Supply chain management is a relatively new concept. The origins can be traced back as recent as 26 years to a Booze Allen Consultant named Keith Oliver. It was Oliver who defined the term and provided the early foundation concepts to what we now know today as integrated supply chain management. It was the Japanese who really adopted this approach in manufacturing and adapted the techniques of ‘just-in-time’ and ‘Ken Ban’; these techniques becoming universally accepted and adopted throughout the west. The large software vendors like Oracle and SAP were looking towards computer software solutions for the automation of these complex processes. Despite making advances in this area it is still difficult to point towards a single standard or procedure for adoption in Supply Chain Management. (Thorsten Blecker, 2006)
供應鏈管理是一個相對較新的概念。起源可以追溯到26年前,一位名叫基思·奧利弗的博澤艾倫顧問。正是奧利弗定義了這個術語,并為我們今天所知的集成供應鏈管理提供了早期的基礎概念。是日本人在制造業中真正采用了這種方法,并采用了“準時制”和“Ken Ban”的技術;這些技術在西方被普遍接受和采用。Oracle和SAP等大型軟件供應商正在尋找計算機軟件解決方案,以實現這些復雜流程的自動化。盡管在這方面取得了進展,但仍然很難指出供應鏈管理中采用的單一標準或程序。
Software Applications – JDA is an example of a software Company that claims to have in excess of 6000 world-wide customers and their software covers the entire spectrum of supply chain management. Another leading player in this field is that of the software firm Logility. Other leading software suppliers like ORACLE and SAP have integrated these applications into the more wider ranging Enterprise Planning software solutions.
軟件應用程序——JDA是一家軟件公司的例子,該公司聲稱擁有超過6000名全球客戶,其軟件涵蓋了整個供應鏈管理領域。該領域的另一家領先公司是軟件公司Logility。其他領先的軟件供應商如ORACLE和SAP已將這些應用程序集成到更廣泛的企業規劃軟件解決方案中。
MITIGATING RISKS IN THE SUPPLY CHAIN 降低供應鏈中的風險
Financial Control – The key towards the management of financial risks in Transportation costs is by having an effective budgetary control system. Planned levels of expenditure (budgets) are made for all levels of operating costs and these are measured against Actual results in the monthly accounts. These will produce variances, either positive (underspend) or negative (overspend). Those negative variances that fall outside of a prescribed tolerance level e.g. +/- 10% of the budget figure, should be made the point of financial investigation and appropriate remedial action taken. This could be the result of increased supplier costs, unplanned overspend, an increase in the quality of materials and hence costs. There may be numerous reasons but the objective should be to get the expenditure back within the budget tolerance limit. ( Sodhi, M.S. 2012)
財務控制——管理運輸成本財務風險的關鍵是建立有效的預算控制系統。計劃的支出水平(預算)是針對所有級別的運營成本制定的,并根據月度賬目中的實際結果進行衡量。這些將產生正(支出不足)或負(支出超支)的差異。對于超出規定公差水平(例如預算數字的+/-10%)的負偏差,應進行財務調查并采取適當的補救措施。這可能是供應商成本增加、計劃外超支、材料質量提高以及成本增加的結果。原因可能有很多,但目標應該是將支出恢復到預算允許范圍內。
Financial control should also be linked to Project Management. In particular examination of contingency plans for alternate suppliers within the supply chain. Lack of appropriate alternative suppliers can expose the firm to unplanned financial risks and cost escalation. The concept of Analytical Risk Mitigation is an approach that explores the relationship between cost and change and this is linked to economic considerations like supply and demand, marginal cost statements, break even analysis. This approach allows firms to deploy risk mitigation strategies that diversify or spread the nature of the risk thereby minimizing the amount of cost disruption to the business.
財務控制也應與項目管理掛鉤。特別是檢查供應鏈中備用供應商的應急計劃。缺乏合適的替代供應商會使公司面臨計劃外的財務風險和成本上升。分析風險緩解的概念是一種探索成本與變化之間關系的方法,它與經濟考慮因素(如供需、邊際成本報表、盈虧平衡分析)相聯系。這種方法允許公司部署風險緩解策略,分散或分散風險的性質,從而最大限度地減少對業務的成本干擾。
Economic Measures – This ties in with logistics and ensuring that measures are taken to mitigate expenditure within the transportation of goods within the supply chain. Logistics may be defined as the function that manages the movement of the materials in the supply chain. This is the movement of materials from the initial supply to that of the final delivery to the customer. The concept of logistics embraces a number of distinct activities like procurement, warehousing, inventory management, order processing, recycling and distribution etc.
經濟措施——這與物流聯系在一起,確保采取措施減少供應鏈內貨物運輸的支出。物流可以定義為管理供應鏈中物料移動的功能。這是材料從最初供應到最終交付給客戶的過程。物流的概念包括許多不同的活動,如采購、倉儲、庫存管理、訂單處理、回收和配送等。
Benefits of logistics management means that managers will be better informed and make smarter decisions if they understand the business processes within their organization. This is critical in the achievement of business goals. Efficient logistics management is also an important vehicle in the development of the business marketing strategy. The use of logistics software has the benefit of placing controls within the system and ensures that proper routing choices are made. This includes the selection of the correct carriers and optimal shipping routes. These time savings provide a considerable return on investment and reduces the level of risk involved.
物流管理的好處意味著,如果管理者了解其組織內的業務流程,他們將獲得更好的信息并做出更明智的決策。這對于實現業務目標至關重要。高效的物流管理也是制定企業營銷戰略的重要手段。物流軟件的使用有利于在系統內設置控制,并確保做出正確的路線選擇。這包括選擇正確的承運人和最佳運輸路線。這些時間節省提供了可觀的投資回報,并降低了所涉及的風險水平。
One of the goals of the integrated supply chain is to remove barriers in order to allow the free flow of materials. One such barrier is that of shared resources in the supply chain. One new approach is removing this barrier and thereby changing the focus to that of ‘buyer focus’. Two existing approaches on the removal of barriers are that of lean thinking and agile manufacturing. Shared resources create a problem by adding to the complexity of planning and control, as such creating a barrier. Buyer focus looks towards splitting the buyer process into more manageable components in order to meet improved performance criteria. In this concept resources are singled out in order to serve one buyer. Hence one buyer serves the whole range of supply products.
一體化供應鏈的目標之一是消除障礙,以允許材料自由流動。其中一個障礙是供應鏈中的共享資源。一種新的方法是消除這一障礙,從而將重點轉向“以買家為中心”。消除障礙的兩種現有方法是精益思維和敏捷制造。共享資源會增加規劃和控制的復雜性,從而造成問題,從而造成障礙。買方關注的是將買方流程拆分為更易于管理的組件,以滿足改進的性能標準。在這個概念中,資源被挑選出來,以服務于一個買家。因此,一個買家為所有供應產品提供服務。       
Risks and responses should be reported to the project sponsor and other management stakeholders on project status and progress reports. Risk management items should be also part of regularly scheduled project Steering Committee meetings. When risk events occur, the impact and actual damage to the project are assessed. Appropriate corrective response plans, workarounds and action items are executed. When a risk event does occur, it becomes an issue that has an impact on the project deliverables and as such it is important that these are resolved at the earliest opportunity The probability and impact matrix is a vehicle whereby the Project Manager and his team determine elements of risks involved in the project and the activities or phases where these may impact the project.
應就項目狀態和進度報告向項目發起人和其他管理利益相關者報告風險和應對措施。風險管理項目也應成為定期計劃的項目指導委員會會議的一部分。當風險事件發生時,評估對項目的影響和實際損害。執行適當的糾正響應計劃、解決方案和行動項目。當風險事件確實發生時,它會成為一個對項目可交付成果產生影響的問題,因此,盡早解決這些問題非常重要。概率和影響矩陣是一種工具,項目經理及其團隊可借此確定項目中涉及的風險要素以及可能影響項目的活動或階段。
CONCLUSIONS 結論
The larger more complex business operations are moving towards the installation of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems that embrace supply chain management. These integrated systems use a single relational database management (rdbms) system. If these are installed properly they can offer significant competitive advantages to the firm. There are however some drawbacks in that they are extremely expensive to set up and install. In addition they propose both complex and expensive maintenance procedures. Some products like that of SAP have had a limited expert resource base to draw from. This has resulted in large in-house training programs and as such added a further layer of expense to the cost of software acquisition. Those firms that have trodden down this path agree that this is an investment over time. The rewards show at a later date once you gain formal control over inventories and the movement of goods in the organization. (Madu, C.N. 2005)
規模更大、更復雜的業務運營正朝著安裝包含供應鏈管理的企業資源規劃(ERP)系統的方向發展。這些集成系統使用單個關系數據庫管理(rdbms)系統。如果安裝得當,它們可以為公司提供顯著的競爭優勢。然而,存在一些缺點,因為它們的設置和安裝極其昂貴。此外,他們提出了復雜且昂貴的維護程序。像SAP這樣的一些產品可供利用的專家資源有限。這導致了大規模的內部培訓計劃,從而增加了軟件采購成本的進一步費用。那些走過這條道路的公司都認為這是一項長期的投資。一旦你獲得了對庫存和組織中貨物流動的正式控制,獎勵將在以后的某個日期顯示。本站提供各國留學生MBA Essay寫作指導服務,如有需要可咨詢本平臺。

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